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Loui Lord Nelson, Ph.D.

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Implementation
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“Experience is the teacher of all things.”

The title of this blog comes from Comments on the Civil War (Commenterii De Bello Civili, c. 52 B.C.) written by Julius Caesar. It is likely Caesar was reflecting on the hard-won lessons of war. There were things he and others might have read about or talked about but they would have never truly understood them unless they had the experiences they had.

Leaving behind the connection to war, I find that the quote is applicable to all experiences. My first job was at a garden shop. I knew how to keep the plants in my home alive and loved reading books about plants (I was passionate about my high school botany class), but I learned through experience that each plant within the cells of the flats were individual organic beings. If I wasn’t careful, I could easily kill a number of them. Maybe the water wouldn’t reach the roots of one plant because its foliage was thick and then the soil would dry up. Or the sun would scorch the plants closest to the blacktop so it was important to rotate them or move them up a shelf. It was also my first lesson in the economics of business. Dead plants can quickly eat into the bottom line of a family-owned business. Respect the plants.

Flats of plants on greenhouse shelves with handing baskets overhead
(Pixabay)

Justin Freedman puts this quote to work within his college course at Rowan University. He knows that his pre-service teachers not only need the experience of using the UDL framework to consider the design of the lessons and learning environments they hope to construct in the future, they also need to use the framework as a lens to observe the lessons they view and learning environments they visit. But here’s where Justin makes this a 365-degree experience. Justin designs his own learning environment and lessons using the UDL framework. His students experience what it is like to be in an environment that responds to their variability. The environment is flexible, accessible, goal-oriented, rigorous, and driven by choice.

During the podcast, Justin talks about his dissertation study. It focused on the professor-student relationship as perceived by students requesting disability-related accommodations. One of his findings was that many students did not want this request to be the basis of the initial relationship with their professor. They did not want to be perceived as asking for anything special and would, in fact, clarify that they would not take advantage of the requested accommodation unless absolutely necessary. The conversation made the students feel disempowered versus empowered. This was a catalyst for Justin in the design of his own learning environment. His purpose for using the UDL framework is to ensure all students experience emotional, physical, and academic access to learning.

You hear Justin discuss the design of his course, how he clarifies his expectations, and the flexibility he provides to all learners, but my biggest take-away is how powerful these pre-service teachers are going to be in the classroom. I know they will be powerful because these learners spend time thinking about their experiences in their own learning environment and then reflect on how those experiences might align with their future students’ experiences. How does the environment make them feel as a learner in relationship to themselves, to others, and as a community? Are there issues around equity? If a student is allowed to use a computer to write her exam essay versus hand-writing the essay, is that advantage harmful to others who also have choice in how they express their knowledge? (The answer here is no. When all learners are given the opportunity to best express their knowledge and skills, everyone has the advantage). These learners are experiencing a learning environment designed using the UDL framework. They are learning that there is not a stand-alone example of UDL. They are learning that they have to take more responsibility for their learning. They are learning how to be purposeful, motivated, resourceful, knowledgeable, strategic, and goal-directed learners. They are learning how to be expert learners.

Executive functioning skills: Start early!

My podcast interview with Karlene Warns focuses on self-regulation skills, but in other conversations, Karlene and I talked about how important those skills are in conjunction with executive functioning. That’s probably why the smart people at CAST put them in the same row of the UDL Guidelines! Because you heard some great examples from Karlene of how she supports the development of her students’ self-regulation skills, I’m going to continue down the pathway of executive functioning so you can link them together.

Executive functioning (EF) is “the self-management system of the brain”. If you do a simple Google search of just those two words to get more information, you will see 113,000,000 results. One would need extraordinary EF skills to get through that list! (I admit it. That’s bad UDL humor). To give us direction, CAST broke down EF into four main areas that we can support in the classroom: guide appropriate goal-setting, support planning and strategy development, facilitate managing information and resources, and enhance capacity for monitoring progress. But Karlene is a kindergarten teacher. Do those students need to be so focused on such seemingly complex skills?

In those initial Google search results, you will find reports on a 3-year study that looked at how the executive functioning skills of kindergarteners were predictors of future academic outcomes. The authors (Morgan, Farkas, Wang, Hillemeier, Oh, & Maczuga, 2019) used modeling to show that executive functions exemplified by kindergarteners predicted academic outcomes in second grade. In another published paper on the same study, the researchers reported that children with EF deficits, especially in working memory, were at risk for repeated academic difficulties in future years. As a reminder, working memory is the part of executive functioning that helps us hold onto information in the short term so we can make it through an assignment or task. Why is this so important? Because there have not been many robust studies that have looked at the risk factors for repeated academic difficulties in elementary school. Moreover, this study looked at reading, math, and science. In short, executive functioning is a really, really important set of skills that deeply affect future success in academics.

Though I’ve only mentioned this one study, there is a significant amount of research that aligns with and backs up the idea that we need to provide our youngest students opportunities to build their executive functioning skills. Learners of all ages need guidance in how to set and achieve goals, plan out their tasks and choose a strategy to complete the tasks, figure out how to manage all of the information and resources coming their way, and continue to build their ability to monitor their own progress. So, can you work in this kind of skill building in the midst of heavy academics? Yes, you can! A more focused and purposeful approach like Karlene models with self-regulation is much, much more effective, but you can tuck activities and small tasks in here and there.

  • Edutopia offers a list of nine ways you can support students develop executive functioning.
  • LDonline offers some straightforward tips that can easily be nestled within your day-to-day work.

Because executive functioning skills are a major part of our daily success, there are tons of videos and articles written about it, but remember that all learners are variable and that variability is due to context. How does your context support your students to practice their EF skills? In each case, the focus should be on providing your learners with as many opportunities as possible to build these skills sets throughout their academic careers and help them understand that these are part of their own lifelong journey toward becoming expert learners.

Little girl with flower in her hair looking up and thinking
(Pixabay)

Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Wang, Y., Hillemeier, M. M., Oh, Y., & Maczuga, S. (2019). Executive function deficits in kindergarten predict repeated academic difficulties across elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 46, 20-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.06.009

While sitting on the main stage in front of a live studio audience at the UDL-IRN Summit, Camille shared her experiences as a learning coach at Sunflower Elementary School in Lawrence, Kansas. She told us the story of her school’s fourth grade teachers and what brought them to UDL. They came to her saying, “We have a weekly assessment that we give to check for student understanding, but we don’t feel like we’re getting the information from the students that they know. We know they know main idea but we don’t allow them to give us all their information.” It’s the second sentence that caught my attention: “We know they know main idea, but we don’t allow them to give us all their information.” It caught my attention because those are such powerful words that demonstrate a certain mindset. It is a mindset that primed the teachers to begin their relationship with UDL more quickly.

These teachers not only recognized the control they had in relation to their students’ learning opportunities (e.g., they owned that they wrote the lesson plan, they chose the materials students used, they decided on the assessments given), these teachers went a step further and understood that this level of control was what inhibited or freed their students to fully demonstrate their knowledge and understanding. In this case, they already saw that the design of the assessments impeded student progress. They already realized that their students knew more than the assessment structures allowed them to show. These teachers demonstrated an assumption of student competency and an acknowledgement of narrow assessments. That combination set those educators up to connect more deeply with the UDL framework.

Later in the podcast, Camille shared that the teachers were initially, “very structured.” She continued with, “And then as they went along, they released that control to the students. And that is amazing when you see fourth graders, they’re learning main idea, they’re getting that direct instruction, but then they take it upon themselves to plan out how they’re going to show it.” They gave more control to their learners and everyone benefitted.

When educators learn about UDL, the first question is always, “How do I get started?” I’m a very pragmatic person and I love to give people concrete instructional steps to take. Thinking about mindset is a very different angle to take. An angle not everyone is willing to take. Mindset gets at the core of who we are as individuals and as teachers, but if we’re not willing to do the deep work of discovering and naming our mindset, we run the risk of inadvertently creating barriers for our learners. This isn’t easy work and it is not always comfortable, but you and a partner or PLC can begin with these three steps.

20 Minute Activity

Background knowledge: Some practice implementing the nine UDL guidelines.

Goal: to discover where you assert control in your learning environment and whether or not that control can be shifted to the learners through the use of the UDL Guidelines.

  1. Individually, write down your answers to these questions on notecards or 1/4 sheets of paper:
    1. Where do I exert control in my learning environment? Think about everything from lessons and classroom design to daily routines (list one item per piece of paper) – 2 Minutes
    2. For each of the items, why do I exert control over it? (write down your reasons on the same side of the paper as the item) – 2 Minutes
  2. Discuss your answers with a partner. Where do you see similarities and differences? Did you add items to your list? – 5 Minutes
  3. Turn each piece of paper over on the table so the side with writing is facing downward and mix them up. Each person chooses three cards. With your partner, brainstorm how you could give up some/more control of that item so students can practice skills that lead them to become expert learners. Use your UDL guidelines to help you design this shift. – 6 Minutes

Debrief: what was the most challenging part of this activity? What item always requires you to have full control? Is there anyone that sees that item differently? Did you shift? – 5 Minutes

This is one step you can take to begin investigating your learning environment design mindset. You will always be the facilitator – the person who determines the overall plan, but keep pushing yourself and your students to see what they can take on. After all, increased active participation in the design and implementation of the lesson will help them gain more skills associated with becoming expert learners.

Being a UDL Influencer

This week’s podcast highlight’s Melissa’s work in helping others become knowledgeable about UDL. She moved from teaching 7th grade to the position of district resource teacher. She even shares how she took an existing UDL tool and modified it to accommodate the needs of her learners (Wait! Did I just use a phrase we normally reserve for our K-12 learners and apply appropriately to all learners? Why yes, I did!). Melissa made sure that the tool was going to be helpful to the teachers with whom she worked. She accommodated those needs by altering the tool. But what if you love being in the classroom and you want to influence others to use the UDL framework? What kind of impact can you make?

Not to get too wonky, but there is a theory that works here (and after I share it, you’ll be able to identify how Melissa’s work is right in line with it!).

Student with unenthusiastic expression on her face in front of open book with thought balloon 'Theory? Really?'
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

There’s this thing called diffusion theory that’s been written about by Everett M. Rodgers (and many, many others) since 1962. Without going too deeply into it, there are 5 phases: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption.

Let’s say you’ve been working with the UDL framework and you’ve blown away by the changes you’ve seen in your learners and in your instruction. You’re psyched! You’re in luck because you can raise awareness and interest (the first two phases) by sharing internet links and stories. This is where mass communication is effective. You’re getting the information in front of people, but it’s information that is out there for everyone. You don’t have to tell your story yet (though you can. That doesn’t mess anything up).

The phase of evaluation is your personal attachment to UDL. This is where you begin to share your own stories of the differences you’ve seen, the steps you’ve taken, and the students’ outcomes you can point out. This helps your peers see how they can evaluate UDL in their own environments. You’re taking away some of that fear of “What do I do to get started?”

Trial and adoption are also based on personal influence. Again, you share your stories of how you’ve played around the framework. What worked and what didn’t work in your environment? Why did it work or not work (that “why” part is huge!)? And, whether or not you feel like you’re at the adoption stage – where you’ve totally adopted UDL – it’s perfectly fine to help others move into the phases.

Having defined phases can be helpful for something that feels as unwieldy as a framework. It can help you chunk things and categorize your actions as a communicator. Whether you see yourself as an educational leader or not, you are an innovator. How do I know? Because you’ve decided to work with the UDL framework. It is a framework that doesn’t leave room for mechanized practices. It is a framework that promotes creativity and change. It is a framework that relies on you using your own expert learning traits. It relies on you to bring your learners along as they explore and build on their own expert learning traits. Design on, my friends!

Are they accommodations or supports? How you view them makes a difference

Adria Gold’s podcast offers the perfect example of the “UDL takeover” that happens when there is full implementation of the framework. Her story comes from the angle of identifying supports that are, at times, reserved for learners with Individual Education Plans (IEPs), but that same support can benefit all learners. The particular support she discusses is chunking.

The National Center on Educational Outcomes describes chunking as a structure that can support learners who are “classified as poor or low-ability readers” (NCEO, n.d.) The only caution is over-chunking, or breaking up the text so much that it can stifle learners’ comprehension of the passage. Though this particular support could be used as an accommodation, in Adria’s classroom it is a support offered to all. What’s the difference, though, between an accommodation and a support?

First, an accommodation is something that changes how a student learns. The term accommodation is used when describing supports offered to learners with disabilities. It isn’t unheard of for people to confuse accommodations and modifications.  This piece from Understood.org lays out the difference between them (namely, modifications change what a student is taught or is expected to learn). With that understanding, we can look at a list of common accommodations that are discussed in another article on Understood.org titled, “Common classroom accommodations and modifications.” These include:

  • Audio recordings instead of reading text
  • Recording notes instead of writing notes
  • Using a word processor to type notes or give responses in class
  • Sitting where the learner learns best

In a learning environment like the one Adria describes, these accommodations are seen as supports for any student who choose to use them because the teacher understands what she/he/they want(s) the learners to accomplish. Instead of individual students using these supports at specific times, they are supports provided to all learners based on the goal of the lesson or task. For example, if you want your learners to comprehend the text, listening to the story lowers the barriers of decoding. If you want your learners to capture key elements of a lecture, recording the notes can lower the barriers or slow writing or typing. For other learners, the barrier might be writing, so using a word processor will lower the barrier. And classrooms across the US (and the world, for that matter) are adopting flexible seating which involves learners not only suggesting the surface on which they will sit so they can learn best, but also the location in the learning environment. In each case, you have to know and your learners have to know what they are working toward so they can make informed choices.

In environments designed using the UDL framework, these options are made available to all learners, just like chunking is made available to all learners in Adria’s classroom. Adria uses chunking to help her learners break down the success criteria (the components they need to identify to successfully achieve the standard) and asserts her choice by saying, “So why not offer them a little bit of structure or chunking or just breaking down your expectation so that they know what they’re being held accountable for?” The learners can pay attention to the colored chunking, they can use the checklist to help them chunk, or they can move through the assignment without giving the colors or checklist any attention. They decide what will help them achieve the goal. Adria recognizes that the support is helping her learners understand their job in the learning process.

Above, I referenced a “UDL takeover” that happens when the framework is fully implemented. That framework is driven by the variability of our learners. We recognize that they all learn differently and it depends on the context. This podcast really focuses in on the access Adria provides to those variable learners. She wants every student to spend time in deep thinking, not wondering whether they will skip a step. She wants them to blend information, not see it as disparate parts. She wants them to think about and talk about the big ideas, not get stuck in the process. Adria understands that access is based on a mindset of inclusion. It is that mindset that drives the design of her learning environment and the focus is on the maturation of expert learners.

When Kim Babeu created her S.P.O.R.T. system, she was thinking about what skills learners needed to be successful in the world. For her, those included:

  • sportsmanship (e.g., cooperating with others and upholding one another),
  • participation (e.g., being fully present and involved on behalf of yourself and for the team)
  • organization (e.g., includes being on time and prepared),
  • respect (e.g., watching their language, respecting oneself and others), and
  • teamwork (e.g., stepping up to the plate).

As described during the podcast, this system has led to wonderful outcomes for her students. She’s so excited about it, she sent me student interviews where they talked about the impact SPORT has had on them. They shared the following:

They see themselves as individuals who are part of a collective:

Marquel, sophomore: “You feel closer with your peers. We are so far ahead because we have quite a few kids that are just a lot more mature and on task. Their characters are just amazing. They are good people.”

Adrianna G. “I think we’ve earned so many 5 out of 5s because we work together. Like, if there’s a problem we’ll all help out. We all participate. We’re all on the team.”

Alexis, junior. “I think our class works as a team and actually wants to earn the sports and follows it. This class feels different. It feels like the class wants to be here and actually learn what we’re learning Other classes just come [sic to school] just because they have to.”

Marcos, Junior: “To earn a class wide like SPORT feels great because everybody was on task, doing their work, you know. Everything was just perfect, it was a perfect thing, you know? [And] this class feels like home because I feel, like it’s a structured place where I can be myself. I can see myself using it in the future because it helps keep me focused.”

Samira, sophomore: “SPORT has helped me not just in class but out of class. It helps me in other classes because I know how to respect, talk, help my team, my classmates, and how to participate. It’s a big thing to understand because it has a lot of meaning in a lot of places. Learning how to respect yourself, elderly, other students.”

More focused:

Diego, sophomore (via a student translator). “S.P.O.R.T. made him be more focused in class which made him more respectful and want to do better in class.”

Alexis, junior: “In my classes it has helps me stay more focused and calm. It has helped me be more respectful of teachers and be more on task. I’ll follow [sic S.P.O.R.T.] when I’m not in school because it has made me become a better person in life and accomplish more things. S.P.O.R.T. is a really good thing. It has helped me in many ways and I’m sure it will help you, too!”

Larry, sophomore: “[sic S.P.O.R.T.] has helped me motivate myself. It helps me stay focused in class.”

Understanding themselves as learners and citizens:

Marquel, sophomore. “I do better with set goals in mind. With SPORT, there’s a goal for the day, so I do better. It keeps me on task.”

Alexis, junior. “Has helped me in many ways, not only in school but in life. It has helped me become more responsible and organized and respect others more. It has helped me realize that everybody deserves respect.”

Marco, junior: “S.P.O.R.T. has helped me mature my mentality and gain skills like be on time, pay attention and focus. It has helped me be engaged more with the lessons.”

Larry, sophomore: “It has helped me with daily activities, like if my mom needs some help, I’ll do what she asks me to out of honor and respect.”

The impact they can have on others:

Samira, sophomore: Responding to earning SPORT points as a class. “We have achieved a big goal because we worked for it. We really, like, put a lot of effort into it. We want to be role models and show other classes what we can do.”

Samira, sophomore: What she wants the world to know. “To just respect and work together, not throw shade at other people. Instead of putting them down, hold them up. Make a difference in life.”

And now…intentionality

When listening to Kim and hearing the outcomes these students have experienced, it’s easy to identify how S.P.O.R.T. aligns with UDL. A quick scan of the guidelines under Engagement alone shows a strong alignment to the affective networks. Those students are learning that: their choices make a difference (recruiting interest), being part of collective has value (recruiting interest), they are part of a collective (sustaining effort and persistence), goals are important in both class and in life (sustaining effort and persistence), the expectations set by Kim are meaningful and doable (self-regulation and recruiting interest), as they improve on their own coping skills, they will be able to accomplish more academically and in life (self-regulation), and that they have ability to reflect and alter their behaviors based on that reflection is a life skill (self-regulation). It’s no wonder this system has the potential to be seen as the implementation of UDL!

Did I just say “potential”? Yes. Is that a slam? No.

The number one thing that must happen to implement UDL is the intentional use of the framework to design something. That means we are thinking about the systematic variability and potential barriers learners might experience before any design decisions are made. But what if people tell you that they “see UDL” in your teaching and you don’t do either one of these things? It means you have been practicing strategies and methods that are backed by quality research and now you get to bring more into your repertoire! Let’s use S.P.O.R.T. as an example.

Toward the end of the podcast, Kim shares that she provides direct instruction about S.P.O.R.T. at the beginning of the year. She also uses posters and student leaders to help new students learn about S.P.O.R.T. to ensure they feel welcome and know how to be part of the community from the beginning. I did not have time to ask, though, what other barriers she has considered. I didn’t get to ask what systematic variability she knows will be present and how can she plan for that up-front. For example, Spanish is the predominant first language in her building, but these students are in an English-speaking environment. Though she knows that students support one another in their language-rich school, she can use Microsoft’s translator (LINK) and then ask students to clean up the translation. Now, her Spanish-speaking students don’t have to wait for their peers to assist them in reading about S.P.O.R.T. That barrier is removed.

Next, UDL is built on the premise that barriers are in the environment, not in the learner, and that the goal determines the support needed. If a learner utilized a wheelchair and needed to get from one room to the next and there are two steps, the barrier is that there is no ramp not that the learner uses a wheelchair. Likewise, if a leaner is a non-reader and they need to comprehend the directions for an experiment, the barrier is that the learner in not provided with audible directions (i.e., given by another learner, teacher, or technology), not that the learner is a non-reader.

If a teacher learns about S.P.O.R.T. but believes that student behaviors purely originate from inside the learner versus seeing behavior as a learner’s reaction to the environment, S.P.O.R.T. cannot work. That’s because the teacher will always look to the students to behave versus scanning the environment for barriers (e.g., something that might trigger a behavior in a student, academic tasks that aren’t scaffolded causing the student to act out, or academic tasks that are too simple causing the student to be bored and frustrated).

This is where UDL helps. How? The intentional and successful implementation of the UDL framework depends on an understanding of variability – context directly impacts all behavior. More specifically, UDL guides us to design environments that help students learn coping skills, self-assessment, and executive functioning.

Finally, after we worked together in the summer of 2018, Kim became enthused about providing her students choice during their anatomy assessments which we talked about in the first podcast. Now, she can ask herself whether her students have choice when learning about and demonstrating their understanding of S.P.O.R.T. When students aren’t successful in exemplifying S.P.O.R.T., are there barriers in the environment related to choice-making that can be removed? Can the process be scaffolded more for some students who demonstrate a lack of connection? These are the questions UDL makes us ask. This is the reflective use of the framework. This is how you guide your learners toward becoming expert learners.

Classroom observations can be a powerful method to improve everything from environment design to implementing strategies. During the podcast, Dan described the influence one teacher had on him.

And there was this one particularly talented teacher who would come into my math class. And she would implement or use all these strategies and I would stand back and watch her and I think, wow, if this is working for students who are struggling, why not try it with the students who may not be struggling, but you never really know because they’re not going to freely admit it so why not let everybody have access to the strategies? And so, at that point, really the “Why not?” became my, my mantra for new ideas. I try to use it as sort of a growth mindset. Even student suggestions, you know, why not try it? And so, that’s really where that, “Why not” sort of developed.

Dan was observing someone who came into his classroom, though many times, observations involve going into someone else’s space. However they happen, observations can be incredibly helpful!

Robert Kaplinsky offers an easy comparison between the Pineapple Chart method created by Jennifer Gonzalez and Mark Barnes for their book, Hacking Education, and his method called #ObserveMe. While these two initiatives help educators learn from one another, I want to add to the conversation by offering an observation guide that is specific to UDL implementation.

The guide, Here’s What I See: The UDL Implementation Observation Guide is different than other guides in four ways.

  1. It asks the observer to focus on a single aspect of the lesson or the environment. An aspect can be a strategy, a material (e.g., use of a specific technology, use of manipulatives, how learners interact with the organizational system of classroom materials), or a method. This helps the observer dig into that one aspect and investigate how it is designed into the lesson and/or space and how learners react to it.
  2. It divides the lesson up into three sections: the initiation, the body, and the conclusion. This way, it is not limited to certain lesson structures (e.g., I do, we do, you do).
  3. The reflection prompts ask the observer to consider the three principles of UDL (e.g., evidence of/nuances of design using engagement). This allows the observer to fully consider how the aspect is used throughout the three phases of the lesson in relation to the three principles.
  4. The guide concludes with de-brief prompts and suggestions of how observers can be grouped for effective conversations. The de-brief prompts are written to guide observers to reflect on issues directly related to the UDL framework.

While I’m excited about this observation guide, I hope users will send me feedback so we can co-construct an even better tool to continue moving ourselves toward becoming expert learners!

Illustration of lady construction worker with hard hat and vest smiling and giving a thumbs up while carrying rolled up blueprints with her other hand
Public Domain

In this episode, Monica shares how she and a team conducted action research to discover whether choice would lead to greater engagement in assessments and learning at the middle school level. While sharing that story, she pointed out that their school counselor is a “Gardner guru,” referencing Howard Gardner’s work on multiple intelligences. Later, she talked about the counselor’s use of multiple intelligences (MI) to help the students identify their strengths.

Referencing Gardner’s work provides a wonderful opportunity to remind everyone of his intent when he published information about MI. In fact, Gardner clarified his work in a Washington Post article printed on October 16, 2013, titled, “Howard Gardner: ‘Multiple intelligences’ are not ‘learning styles.’(Strauss).

Through his work on multiple intelligences, Gardner’s goal was to dissuade people from believing that we have a single overarching intelligence that defines how well we will do in life. Instead, Gardner believes there are a series of 8 different intelligences including: intrapersonal, interpersonal, logical-mathematical, naturalist, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, linguistic, and musical (www.multipleintelligencesoasis.org). The theory suggests that due to the interconnectivity of our brains, we inherently experience these different intelligences simultaneously and we experience them based on context. While a person may show a propensity toward one or another, that doesn’t mean it defines that person. He uses the example of a person who has the ability to acquire a new language quickly. That person might have a higher linguistic intelligence, but this does not lock this person into a type or style.

At some point, individuals and groups began talking and writing about learning styles. Definitions were created and assessments soon followed. As Gardner points out, though, there are no criteria to back up the definitions and these styles do not hold true across context. Here’s an example. Some people refer to themselves as “auditory” learners, but this style fails to recognize how our brain works. For example, a person might appear to learn best when the learning is attached to music, but not when listening to podcasts. Both are auditory actions (i.e., they make use of hearing), but use different cognitive faculties. The brain works differently even though the “input” is through the ears. To identify a learner with a type of style or to have that learner identify themselves as a specific type of style (a) denies what we know about how the brain functions, and (b) can mislead a learner to characterize themselves in an ill-defined and limiting way.

Through the UDL Lens

In that same article, Gardner provides recommendations that I provide here via the UDL lens. First, he calls on us to individualize. He calls for educators to help learners discover ways they find comfortable to learn and support them in those ways. In the UDL community, we build that into the design via choice (as Monica and her peers did for their action research). An important key here is to help learners find ways of learning, not one way, because there is not a single way for any learner to experience learning. Second, he asks teachers to “pluralize” their teaching by teaching topics and skills in a variety of ways. This is at the very heart of UDL and the Principle of Representation. When we use multiple means and methods to demonstrate topics and skills, we are able to connect with all of our learners, providing them opportunities to learn more thoroughly. Finally, Gardner asks us to drop the term “styles.” It’s confusing and has no research-base unlike the principles, guidelines, and checkpoints of UDL as well as the concept of variability.

Wooden figure leaning on its right hand
CCO Public Domain

Currently, there is no MI test and, in fact, Gardner pushes against self-assessment to specifically define oneself (read here). What he does want people to do is understand the interrelationship between our intelligences. He has online activities at the posted link so people can experience these connections.

Ultimately, Gardner doesn’t want us to assess ourselves. He wants us to explore and understand these different parts of ourselves. So, instead of asking your students to assess themselves, allow them the ability to explore and make their own discoveries through choice and reflection. That is, after all, how we support the development of expert learners.

During my podcast with Jana Nicol, she provided some wonderful examples of how she got started with the UDL framework. These included the organization of her classroom supplies, her use of the classroom schedule, and her adoption of flexible seating. Each were quality environment strategies. The difference, though, is how she used the framework to determine the design of each item. Below, I break down the three examples and include the UDL guidelines associated with her decisions.

Labeled bins with cut-out handles on sectioned shelves that stand at the height of her students
Organization of supplies (picture taken by Jana Nicol)

What teacher doesn’t love an organized space, especially when your classroom isn’t particularly large? And while Jana teaches 3rd grade, many of the names associated with classroom supplies are part of students’ day-to-day language. She recognizes the variability she knows will be present. She knows that some of her learners might struggle when scanning the bins to locate the correct supplies. Knowing about variability also leads her to design other presentation and use strategies. The signs on her bins include the picture of the item (Perception and Language & Symbols). To what end? She wants her learners to be motivated and self-driven in their use of the supplies (Self-Regulation and Executive Functions). She wants to open the doors to creativity when they are working on projects (Expression & Communication) instead of requiring them to stop, seek permission, and potentially lose their creative idea while waiting to get the supply they need. And, instead of waiting, they can stay in their zone of excitement and productivity (Sustaining Effort & Persistence). The pure freedom learners have to choose the supply they think they need provides them with more choice and autonomy (Recruiting Interest), leading them to experience both success and challenge based on their choices (e.g., have you ever used a glue stick when you should have used masking tape?).

A pocket chart filled with cards that have the task name and associated picture on them. The top pocket has the day of the week. The order of the cards going down visually models the order of the schedule. A long pole with a cartoon hand is used to point to the schedule items when Jana Nicol reads the schedule out loud.
Classroom Schedule (photo by Jana Nicol)

When I was an 8th grade collaborative special education teacher, students came to my room during two different periods a day. I always wrote a schedule on my board. I knew that helped my students (and me), but I didn’t know why it helped them. UDL helps me understand why.

Students know what is coming, which can help them understand the flow of the class (Sustaining Effort and Persistence) and know what’s coming next. For some, knowing the schedule order provides them with a sense of security (Recruiting interest) and helps them regulate their emotions and reactions toward specific subjects or what they perceive as activities connected with those subjects or activities (Self-regulation). Nicol’s schedule provides images, written words, and she reads the schedule out loud (Perception and Language & Symbols). She ensures her students understand the pattern of the day (Comprehension). By discussing the schedule, learners also have the opportunity to think through their day and plan how they will stay on task, work with others, or meet other goals (Executive Functions). Posting the schedule is a first step, but it is how the schedule is used in the environment that opens opportunities to learners. When you understand the guidelines, you can investigate how you might use a simple organizational structure in a way that benefits more of your learners in a more effective way.

Four boys sitting around a rectangular table. Two boys are seated on milk crates. One boy is seated on a stool, while another boy is sitting in a chair.
Flexible seating (photo by Jana Nicol)

Flexible seating is a popular topic and has been shown to be a promising structure for learning. In this podcast, we talked not only about the different types of seating learners could choose, but that they also chose where they worked and, when applicable, with whom they worked. It takes careful planning and execution and the UDL framework can help you do both, just as it helped Jana.

As Jana shares during the podcast, her students love choosing where they are going to work (Recruiting Interest). They are able to work alongside one another (Sustaining Effort and Persistence) and they help keep one another on track (I’m making an assumption here, but it fits with how Jana designs her classroom) (Sustaining Effort and Persistence and Self-Regulation). Students who might experience a learning barrier due to the physical set-up of the space can be provided with options and opportunity when there is flexible seating (Physical Action).

Toward the end of the podcast, Jana used a word that is one of the underlying components of UDL: flexibility. When we design environments that allow for learner choice – we build in flexibility – we see them grow. They now have to make decisions as to what is going to benefit them most. Which supply will help them accomplish what they’ve set out to do? How they will manage their needs as they relate to the schedule? And, which seating type and what location will help them reach their goals? These types of decisions are what help our learners become expert learners, and that is the ultimate goal of UDL.

This blog is in response to my podcast with Ben Kelly.

Empowering through investigation

During this episode’s interview with Ben Kelly, he is jazzed about Minecraft as a tool that aligns with the Universal Design for Learning framework. I’m jazzed about his participation in action research. This research method is extremely powerful because it gives us answers about how we can change our instruction or environment to meet the needs of our learners. Ben and colleagues throughout New Brunswick, Canada took part in UDL-focused action research projects that were supported by the University of New Brunswick as well as the New Brunswick Department of Education. This powerful partnership led to the publication of each team’s findings. The teams investigated topics including: student engagement in project-based learning, eBook usage by English language learners, grade 9 math, engagement around a social studies curriculum, promoting student engagement, increasing engagement in an inclusive environment, establishing collaboration among teachers who are implanting UDL, using math exchanges and math stations to improve problem solving and numeracy skills, and using formative assessment to improve skill development, understanding, and self-correction in physical education. Their reported results are enlightening and supportive of the UDL framework! I promise that after you have read some or all of these articles, you will become jazzed about the possibilities action research bring to you!

But if you have never learned about action research or it has been a while since you tried it out, where do you start? George Mason University has gathered quality resources including work done by the University of Maryland as part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant called Project Nexus. Linking very nicely to UDL, this project encouraged teachers to use the regular sources of interviews and written text but also included student drawings (a lovely connection to the principle of Action & Expression!).

Maybe you are interested in giving action research a try, but you are not sure whether you want to conduct action research on your own, with a team, at the school level, or at the district level. In this document, written by Eileen Ferrance and published and distributed by Brown University, there is a wonderfully helpful table that guides the reader to understand the supports needed, the potential impact that the research can have, and potential side effects in relationship to individual teacher research, collaborative action research, school-wide action research, or district-wide action research.

Ultimately, action research puts the power in your hands. As with any research, you decide what you want to study, how you want to structure the study, and who you want to have involved in your study, but action research is accessible to teachers. It relies on the assessment of what you are doing in your classroom and the work your students produce. These are things you look at anyway; the action research process provides a more structured and in-depth way to investigate your question, set a strong plan, collect the data, analyze and interpret those data, reflect on your findings, and ultimately finish that loop of formative assessment by making informed changes and sharing what you have learned. After all, you could be like the teachers in New Brunswick, Canada and your lessons could empower a bunch of other teachers!

Clip art diagram of action research process
Action Research Cliparts #2433655 retrieved from http://clipart-library.com/clipart/1605822.htm